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Accelerometer The Basic Introduction

Sinocera Piezotronics, INC | Updated: May 26, 2017

  Accelerometer Accelerometer measuring the acceleration of the instrument. Acceleration measurement is an important topic of engineering technology. When the object has a large acceleration, the object and its equipment and other objects without relative acceleration are able to produce the same large acceleration force, that is subject to dynamic load. To know the dynamic load is necessary to measure the acceleration. Secondly, to know the instantaneous aircraft, rockets and ships where the space position, through inertial navigation (see gyro platform inertial navigation system) continuously measured its acceleration, and then through the integral operation to get the speed component, once again to get a direction of the position Coordinate signal, and three coordinate direction of the instrument measurement results to synthesize the motion curve and give the space where the vehicle is located every moment. Again, in some control systems, an acceleration signal is often required as part of the information needed to produce a control, and there is a problem of continuously measuring the acceleration. An apparatus that continuously gives an acceleration signal is called an acceleration sensor.

   Accelerometer Common accelerometer components are as follows: shell (with the measured object fixed), reference quality, sensitive components, signal output and so on. Accelerometers require a range and accuracy, sensitivity, etc. These requirements are often contradictory to some extent. The accelerometers based on different principles have different ranges (from several g to several hundred g), and their sensitivity to the abrupt acceleration frequency is also different. Common accelerometers are based on the principle: ① reference mass connected by the spring and the shell (see Figure), and the relative displacement of the shell and reflect the size of the acceleration component, the signal through the potentiometer to the amount of voltage output; The mass is fixed by the elastic rod and the shell, the dynamic load caused by the acceleration of the rod deformation, with the strain resistance wire induction deformation of the size of its output is proportional to the size of the accelerating disk size of the electrical signal; ③ reference quality through the piezoelectric element And the load is fixed to the shell, the mass of the dynamic load on the piezoelectric element pressure, the piezoelectric element output and pressure that is proportional to the acceleration component of the electrical signal: ④ reference mass connected by the spring and the shell, placed inside the coil, reflecting the acceleration component The displacement of the size changes the inductance of the coil, thereby outputting an electrical signal proportional to the acceleration. In addition, there are servo type accelerometers, which introduce a feedback loop to improve the accuracy of the measurement. In order to measure the acceleration vector in plane or space, two or three accelerometers are required, each measuring an acceleration component.

   Accelerometer The principle of the angle accelerometer is similar to that of an accelerometer, and its outer case is mounted on a rotating object. A tangential dynamic load is generated at the reference mass due to the angular acceleration, and a signal proportional to the tangential acceleration or angular acceleration can be output. With the measured object and measurement requirements of the different, accelerometer has a variety of principles and ways to achieve. Such as in the aircraft, according to the principle of gyroscope designed gyro accelerometer and so on.